What is subhas chandra bose known for?
Subhas Chandra Bose (also called Netaji) is known for his role in India’s independence movement. A participant of theand a leader of the , he was part of the more militant wing and known for his advocacy of policies.
What was Subhas Chandra Bose’s education?
Subhas Chandra Bose studied in Calcutta () at the Presidency College and the Scottish Churches College. His parents then sent him to the in England to prepare for the Indian Civil Service. He passed the examination but resigned his candidacy and returned to India after hearing of nationalist turmoils there.
What was Subhas Chandra Bose’s impact?
Subhas Chandra Bose (known also as Netaji) reflected a more militant andapproach to ’s independence movement as compared with ’s less confrontational stance and more conservative economics. While in exile in the 1940s, Bose raised a liberation army in East Asia with aid and influence.
How did Subhas Chandra Bose die?
Subhas Chandra Bose reportedly died in a Japanese hospital infrom burn injuries on August 18, 1945, as a result of a plane crash while fleeing , days after ended with the surrender of (which had been supporting Bose and his liberation army).
Subhas Chandra Bose, byname Netaji (Hindi: “Respected Leader”), (born c. January 23, 1897,, [now Odisha], India—died 18, 1945, , Taiwan?), Indian revolutionary prominent in the independence movement against British rule of . He also led an Indian national force from abroad against the Western powers during . He was a contemporary of , at times an ally and at other times an adversary. Bose was known in particular for his militant approach to independence and for his push for policies.
Early life and political activity
The son of a wealthy and prominent Bengali lawyer, Bose studied at Presidency College, Calcutta (), from which he was expelled in 1916 for nationalist activities, and the Scottish Churches College (graduating in 1919). He then was sent by his parents to the in to prepare for the Indian Civil Service. In 1920 he passed the examination, but in April 1921, after hearing of the nationalist turmoils in India, he resigned his candidacy and hurried back to India. Throughout his career, especially in its early stages, he was supported financially and emotionally by an elder brother, Sarat Chandra Bose (1889–1950), a wealthy Calcutta lawyer and (also known as the Congress Party) politician.
Bose joined thestarted by , who had made the Indian National Congress a powerful nonviolent organization. Bose was advised by Gandhi to work under , a politician in . There Bose became a youth educator, journalist, and commandant of the Bengal Congress volunteers. His activities led to his imprisonment in December 1921. In 1924 he was appointed chief executive officer of the , with Das as . Bose was soon after deported to Burma ( ) because he was suspected of connections with secret revolutionary movements. Released in 1927, he returned to find Bengal Congress affairs in disarray after the death of Das, and Bose was elected president of the Bengal Congress. Shortly thereafter he and became the two general secretaries of the Indian National Congress. Together they represented the more militant, left-wing faction of the party against the more compromising, right-wing Gandhian faction.
A falling-out with
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Vocal support for Gandhi increased within the Indian National Congress, meanwhile, and, in light of this, Gandhi resumed a more commanding role in the party. When themovement was started in 1930, Bose was already in detention for his associations with an underground revolutionary group, the Bengal Volunteers. Nevertheless, he was elected mayor of while in prison. Released and then rearrested several times for his suspected role in violent acts, Bose was finally allowed to proceed to Europe after he contracted and was released for ill health. In enforced and still ill, he wrote The Indian Struggle, 1920–1934 and pleaded India’s cause with European leaders. He returned from in 1936, was again taken into custody, and was released after a year.
Meanwhile, Bose became increasingly critical of Gandhi’s moreeconomics as well as his less confrontational approach toward independence. In 1938 he was elected president of the Indian National Congress and formed a national planning committee, which formulated a policy of broad industrialization. However, this did not harmonize with Gandhian economic thought, which clung to the notion of cottage industries and benefiting from the use of the own resources. Bose’s came in 1939, when he defeated a Gandhian rival for reelection. Nonetheless, the “rebel president” felt bound to resign because of the lack of Gandhi’s support. He founded the , hoping to rally radical elements, but was again incarcerated in July 1940. His refusal to remain in prison at this critical period of India’s history was expressed in a determination to fast to death, which frightened the British government into releasing him. On January 26, 1941, though closely watched, he escaped from his Calcutta residence in disguise and, traveling via and , eventually reached in April.
Activity in exile
InGermany Bose came under the tutelage of a newly created Special Bureau for India, guided by Adam von Trott zu Solz. He and other Indians who had gathered in made regular broadcasts from the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio beginning in January 1942, speaking in , , , , , , and .
A little more than a year after theinvasion of , Bose left Germany, traveling by German and Japanese and by , and arrived in May 1943 in . On July 4 he assumed leadership of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia and proceeded, with Japanese aid and influence, to form a trained army of about 40,000 troops in Japanese-occupied Southeast Asia. On October 21, 1943, Bose proclaimed the establishment of a provisional independent Indian government, and his so-called (Azad Hind Fauj), alongside Japanese troops, advanced to Rangoon ( ) and thence overland into , reaching Indian soil on March 18, 1944, and moving into and the plains of . In a stubborn battle, the mixed Indian and Japanese forces, lacking Japanese air support, were defeated and forced to retreat; the Indian National Army nevertheless for some time succeeded in maintaining its identity as a liberation army, based in Burma and then . With the defeat of Japan, however, Bose’s fortunes ended.
A few days after Japan’s announced surrender in August 1945, Bose, fleeing Southeast Asia, reportedly died in a Japanese hospital inas a result of burn injuries from a plane crash.
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This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Zeidan